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A postcard from Phoenix Indian School shows students in military dress uniforms. Early versions of tribal boarding schools were heavy on harsh discipline and military training and while that eased eventually, one person recalls “room inspections, demerits, a bell to wake us up, lights out” at Phoenix Indian School still in the late 1970s. (Photo courtesy Phoenix Indian School Visitor Center)

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In the early 1930s, Robert Carr, a member of the Creek Nation, was expelled for “incorrigible behavior” from Chilocco Indian Agricultural School near the Kansas-Oklahoma border.

By Calah Schlabach, News 21 with Cronkite News September 8, 2020